Angina: The transient pain or discomfort that
occurs when an area of the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen temporarily.
Anticoagulation: Prevention of clotting of the
blood by administering such medication as warfarin and coumadin.
Acute Myocardial Infarction: Is a clot forming
within the coronary artery.
Ascities: fluid filled abdomen
Alveoli: Are minute sacs that arise from
Arrhythmias: The presence of heart rate and
rhythm other than normal sinus rhythm.
Atrial Septol Defect (ASD): A congenital heart
malformation, where there is an increased amount of blood.
Arteriosclerosis: A gradual accumulation of
fatty or lipid material, carbohydrates, blood products and calcium deposits
within the inner lining of the vessels
Atheromoutous Plaque: build up of fatty and
Carditis: Inflammation of the heart.
Corarctation of the Aorta: narrowing of the
lumen of the aorta.
Coronary Arteries: Are medium size vessels,
which take oxygen, bearing blood to the working muscle.
Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG): Major
Cor Pulmonale: A cardiac complication resulting
from the extra strain on the heart cause by the inability of the lungs to
oxygenate the blood adequately.
Coronary Thrombosis: Is a clot forming within
the coronary artery.
Cyanosis: Blue discolouration of the skin and
mucous membranes due to increased content of reduced haemoglobin in the
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): Clot formation in
the leg or pelvic vein.
Dyspnoea: Is an abnormally uncomfortable
awareness of breathing.
Embolise: blot clot Emphysema: The destructive
changes in alveolar walls and enlargement of air spaces.
Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart,
which consist of the endothelial tissue.
Ebstein’s anomaly: Tricuspid dystopia.
Congenital heart defect in which the tricuspid valve does not arise from the
annulus fibrosis of the right heart but partly or entirely from the wall of
the deeper part of the ventricle.
Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Most important type of
oblerative Cardiomyopathy With thickening of the endocardial lining of the
left ventricle and /or left atrium.
Eosinphilia: Part of the family of the white
blood cells that is responsible for humoral and cellular response to
Fallot’s Tetralogy: Decreased pulmonary blood
flow (Ventricular Septol Defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular
hypertrophy, and pulmonary stenosis) and tricuspid atreisa (absence or
severely malformed tricuspid valve.)
Haematuria: Blood in the urine Heart Failure: A
result of the heart muscle becoming increasingly inefficient.
Hyperlipidaemia: the increase of lipids above
the normal level in the blood.
Hypertrophies: A gradual remodelling of the
heart muscle, which thickens and enlarges.
Hypoxia: Low oxygen tension.
Ischaemic Heart Disease: Narrowing of the
vessels , which as a result reduce the blood flow to a point at which
symptoms develop. This is referred to as coronary artery diseases, these
abnormal conditions then gives rise to ischaemic heart disease.
Left Ventricle: Receives blood from the left
atrium through the opened mitral valve during ventricular diastole
Lipid: Are composed mainly of cholesterol,
triglyceride, phosoholipid and free fatty acids, all of which are insoluble
in water and require a carrier to transport them.
Myocardium: The heart muscle.
Oedema: An accumulation of excess fluid in the
interstitial spaces. (Swelling). Palpitations: Racing heartbeat
Patent Ductus Arterious: (PDA) An increase
amount of blood flow to the lungs.