Heart Disease - Diseases of the Inner and Outer Lining of the Heart
Is an inflammation of the endocardium. It affects primarily the valve
structures and maybe infective or non-infective. Apart from Rheumatic fever,
the most common non- infective is that due to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (S.LE)
is treated by treating the lupus.
This may be acute or sub acute and due to bacteria, fungi, chlamydia and
other organisms. Most common is the bacterial sub acute type. This seldom
affects a previously normal heart, but tends to be imposed where there was a
pre-existing defect such as an abnormal or diseased mitral or aortic valve.
The source of organism in the majority of cases is the oral cavity with a
history of dental infection or treatment.
The infection leads to the formation of friable vegetations on to affected
valves and endocardium. Pieces of vegetation may embolise to other parts of
the body such as the brain and kidneys producing appropriate symptoms such
as stroke and haematuria. The other symptoms
tends to be non-specific, mainly fever, anaemia and weightless specific
cardiac type symptoms are rare and late and indicate catastrophic
Prevention and Treatment of Diseases of the Linig of the Heart:
Prolonged antibiotic therapy is essential. When the infection is over,
surgery may be necessary for the replacement of damaged valves.
All performed at risk because of pre-existing valve or other structures
abnormalities of the heart should pay attention to oral hygiene and should
be aware of the need to have antibiotic cover for dental procedures,
genetic-urinary surgery and other procedure in which infection is likely.
Inflammation of the outer lining sac which envelops the heart like
endocarditis be infective or non infective in organ. However, if infective
the constrict organism is usually viral. The main symptom is pain.
Treatment consists of pain relief and managing the underlying condition for
Here there is a collection of fluid between the heart and the
pericardium. It us usually without symptoms and
requires no treatment unless it is infected or causing
Here the effusion collects rapidly, not giving the percardium time to
stretch to accommodate it. It can collect therefore only by compressing the
underlying heart muscle, the ventricles in turn are unable to fill properly
and the heart rapidly fails as a pump. If sever acute circulatory failure
rapidly develops. This will be rapidly fatal and relief by
paracentesis or surgery is urgent.
In this rare condition, a thickened fibrosed and often-calcified pericardium constricts
the heart. It is a late complication of certain pericardial infections,
malignant incision and haemorrhage into the pericardium. The symptoms are of
cardiac failure with abdominal swelling and ascitis
dominating over limb oedema and dyspnoea. The treatment is surgical
stripping of the pericardium.
Malignancies Involving the Heart
These will be addressed here as they fall more within the realm of oncology
than cardiology, but the initial symptoms may be any of those mentioned in
the other condition of the heart.